A Primer on Gut Flora

Driving along a suburban road on the North side of Brisbane (Australia), a kangaroo bounds seemingly out of nowhere and hits the side of my car. Minor vehicle damage but the animal was clearly in pain and could not get up. After phoning 1300 Animal, the Vet arrived and gave us the sad prognosis. He did have some good news though, as he fished out a very-much-alive joey out of the nearly dead kangaroo’s pouch. He said: “Be sure to mix these in with his milk” as he handed me some of mum kangaroo’s droppings.

As we nursed joey with poop-imbued cow’s milk it grew and grew until the sad time came for release. Clearly, the Vet’s advice was founded upon his knowledge of joey’s inability to digest cow’s milk. It got me interested in aspects of microbiome inherited from the mother and matters of our own gut flora. This article gives overview to how we acquire the all-important gut flora.

It appears we humans can acquire our gut flora in at least 4 ways:

Physical transmission from our mothers.
Diet: E.g. Sauerkraut, Yakult-style probiotics, etc.
Recently discovered, genetic transmission.
Engraftment.

Acquisition from Our Mothers

Intergenerational handing down of microbiome occurs from great grandmothers and older, to mother and finally child by the process of passage through the birth canal. Then there is contact with the mother’s skin as well as breast milk delivering mouth microbes. As well transmission takes place from the mother’s placenta, uterus and vagina. Placental microbiota is discussed more fully by others in the know

Far from being a sterile environment (as thought), researchers found microbial presence in amniotic fluid and baby’s first stool. Although our gut microbiome is influenced by diet, gender, geography and ethnicity, our initial acquisition appears to be the most important.

Dietary Considerations

You can eat kimchi, sauerkraut and a host of other fermented products and improve your gut flora and thereby your overall health. However, if anti-biotics and other flora-destroying agents are on your menu, you will lose some of your precious microbiota.

One of the worst enemies of gut flora is air pollution. Inhaled particulate matter is quickly cleared from the lungs and finds its way into the intestinal tract altering susceptible microbiota. Smoking is in this class.

Microbiome Acquisition via DNA

Approximately 17 years ago the Genome Project delivered a complete sequencing of human DNA. This was a significant accomplishment for mankind. With that project now well in place, is it possible that some microbiota might be transmitted by parents to their off-spring DNA?

In a UK study of over 1000 twins, researchers set out to determine whether human genes are implicated in the transmission of microbiota. Whilst they sought to include environmental transmission in their study as well, they found about 12 microbes beneficial to health that were heritable via DNA..

Research is continuing at the National Institutes of Health’s Human Microbiome Project to map the genetic blueprints with microbiota variants. Early findings would indicate on strong evidence that microbial genes are linked to primal ancestors.

Engraftment

With the loss of gut flora throughout life’s exposures there is risk that some microbiota in a given person are irrecoverably extinct. Just like in the kangaroo and joey story, engraftment becomes a desirable intervention. Now the idea of swallowing someone else’s poop is highly unpalatable. A nasogastric tube or colonoscopy become more acceptable modalities.

The science of human microbiome is still in its infancy. Not all microbiota are catalogued and cross-referenced with disease and well-being. Then too, are fecal donor similarity requirements and certainty of microbiota survival in the recipient in the longer term.

If Your Stomach Is Getting More Than Needed, You Can Have Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis is a short-term disease caused by infection and swelling of the digestive tract. Other causes include some viruses, bacteria, bacterial poisons, parasites, special chemicals, and some medicines.

Gastroenterology- Gastroenterology is the department of medical science that focuses on the digestive tract and related diseases. The word originated from the ancient Greek word gastros (enterprises), enteron (intestines) and logos (scripture).

Peptic ulcer in the stomach – This is a big evil and painful disease. It has two forms. There is an acute ulcer and another chronic ulcer. The fierce ulcer is small but deep, leaving the mucous membrane in the flesh level. These triangular shapes are deep, whose peak is on the outside of the muscle and on the base mucosa. Chronic ulcers are more elaborate. Among them, the elaborate parts of mucosal art are separated by bleeding, which is also more bleeding from those ulcers, which comes out through vomiting, but many patients do not have blood. Some do not come out of vomiting and only appear in the stool and only appear on examination by the microscope. In the duodenum too, similar vesicles are formed.

Pain is the main symptom of these ulcers. It has a special relationship with food. After eating the stomach in the stomach, the pain starts immediately, or some delay, after eating. Pain in the duodenal ulcer begins after one and a half hours of food when the stomach becomes very empty. Again, after eating some food, he becomes calm. The position of the ulcer is estimated from the condition of pain by pressing on the abdomen with the finger.

Gastroenteritis – Gastroenteritis is the disease caused by infection and swelling in the gastrointestinal tract. In this, the person may complain about stomach cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting. In most cases, the condition is cured within a few days.

What is gastroenteritis?

A person affected by gastroenteritis may have diarrhea. It is also called a flatulent fluid in the language of colloquialism. Norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus etc. are often found in contaminated food or drinking water. These viruses enter the body with food or water and spread their infection in four to 48 hours. People with children, the elderly and weakly resistant mechanisms are more at risk of this disease.

Understand about gastroenteritis – Due to high heat and rainy days, the risk of this disease is high. This season gives a conducive environment for the bacterial disease of this disease. In this season, harvested fruits, vegetables, and other substances quickly get spoiled. Fly, mosquitoes take these bacteria from food to other foods. When they use it, the bacteria pass inside the body and the person gets sick. Contaminated water is another important reason for the spread of this disease.

Symptoms of gastroenteritis – Gastroenteritis symptoms include loss of appetite, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, severe chills, light irritation in the skin, excessive sweating, fever, stiffness in the joints, muscular discomfort, weight loss etc.

Reasons for Gastroenteritis – Many things can cause gastroenteritis. The virus, in particular, is the primary cause of gastroenteritis such as rotavirus, astrovirus, and bacteria such as Campylobacter bacteria. Some parasites can also increase gastroenteritis. Some antibiotics can cause gastroenteritis in those who are susceptible.

Infectious gastroenteritis – Infectious gastroenteritis is caused by viruses, bacteria or parasites. In each case, the infection is usually due to eating or drinking. Some common types of infectious gastroenteritis include campylobacter infection, Cryptosporidium infections, guildies salmonellosis syngelosis and viral gastroenteritis.

Noncontagious reason – However, many other infectious agents can also cause this disease. Many non-communicable causes can also lead to this disease. But, they are less likely to be viral or bacterial than gastroenteritis. The weakened immune system and the absence of relative cleanliness can make children a victim of this disease.

Gastroenteritis diagnosis – For the treatment of gastroenteritis, it is very important to know what kind of gastroenteritis you have. Diagnostic methods include medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and stool testing.

Treatment of gastroenteritis – The treatment depends on the cause. But still, it should be consumed with high amounts of fluid in its treatment, oral rehydration drinks available from the pharmacist or the ORS. If the condition worsens, then a person may have to enter the hospital. Do not consume any medication without the doctor’s advice.

Deliverance from gastroenteritis – To avoid this disease, cleanliness of the house should be eaten. Never use stale food and contaminated water. Before cooking and eating food, wash hands thoroughly with soap. After defecation, hands should be washed with soap. Boil the water well and drink it after cooling. Water Purifiers or water cleansing equipment can also be installed at home. Water should not be allowed to be collected around wells and handpumps. Fruits and vegetables should be washed and used in all. We can be protected from gastroenteritis, but it is necessary that our water and food are clean.

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